[Definition of Crucifixion and references from Eastern's Bible Dictionary]
A common mode of punishment among heathen nations in early times. It is not certain whether it was known among the ancient Jews; probably it was not. The modes of capital punishment according to the Mosaic law were, by the sword (Exodus. 21), strangling, fire (Leviticus. 20), and stoning (Deuteronomy. 21).
This was regarded as the most horrible form of death, and to a Jew it would acquire greater horror from the curse in Deuteronomy_21:23.
This punishment began by subjecting the sufferer to scourging. In the case of our Lord, however, his scourging was rather before the sentence was passed upon him, and was inflicted by Pilate for the purpose, probably, of exciting pity and procuring his escape from further punishment (Luke_23:22; John_19:1).
The condemned one carried his own cross to the place of execution, which was outside the city, in some conspicuous place set apart for the purpose. Before the nailing to the cross took place, a medicated cup of vinegar mixed with gall and myrrh (the sopor) was given, for the purpose of deadening the pangs of the sufferer. Our Lord refused this cup, that his senses might be clear (Matthew_27:34). The spongeful of vinegar, sour wine, posca, the common drink of the Roman soldiers, which was put on a hyssop stalk and offered to our Lord in contemptuous pity (Matthew_27:48; Luke_23:36), he tasted to allay the agonies of his thirst (John_19:29).
The accounts given of the crucifixion of our Lord are in entire agreement with the customs and practices of the Roman in such cases.
He was crucified between two "malefactors" (Isaiah_53:12; Luk_23:32), and was watched by a party of four soldiers (John_19:23; Matthew_27:36, Matthew_27:54), with their centurion. The "breaking of the legs" of the malefactors was intended to hasten death, and put them out of misery (John_19:31); but the unusual rapidity of our Lord's death (John_19:33) was due to his previous sufferings and his great mental anguish. The omission of the breaking of his legs was the fulfillment of a type (Exodus_12:46).
He literally died of a broken heart, a ruptured heart, and hence the flowing of blood and water from the wound made by the soldier's spear (John_19:34).
In the midst of excurciating (literally "out of the cross") pain Jesus uttered words of forgiveness, love and hope.
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